Cybersecurity can be divided into various domains to study effectively. Such a classification can help us in understanding various application areas of Cybersecurity effectively and can help in wisely choosing the most effective strategy for an organization. The classification is as under.

1]. RISK ASSESSMENT in Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity Risk Assessment is a necessary step to identify the bugs and leaks in your organization’s critical risk areas. And to perform actions to conclude these bugs. A general Risk assessment involves identifying various information assets that could be attacked by hackers. The assets can be classified as hardware, laptops, customer information, intellectual property, etc. This is followed by recognizing the various threats that could affect these assets. Functions like “Vulnerability Scans” and “Penetration tests” are usually performed. Which is followed by the selection of controls necessary to treat the identified threats. It is also important to regularly monitor and review the risk environment. And to recognize any change in the framework of a particular organization.


Most of the Cybersecurity companies regularly perform vulnerability assessments. Companies take advantage of a large number of tools (many of which are free). To scan their networks for bugs or potential exposures to determine what services are being run in their networks. And whether the software versions are updated, as well as to scan for the known vulnerabilities. Other free tools allow the administrators to perform pre-defined exploits against their won systems. And conduct brute-force dictionary attacks against their own users. A vulnerability scanner can be used as a detection tool. To alert information security programs of any unauthorized changes that have been made to the environment of the network. Vulnerability scans should be run continuously whenever new equipment is installed or an IT resource is introduced.

3]. PENETRATIOIN TESTS in Cybersecurity

Penetration tests are basically the practice of exploiting a bug and discovering it. The depth of the problem to find out exactly what type of information could be revealed. If the website was exploited, Penetration tests don’t really depend upon the tools but rather depend upon the tester. The tester should have vast knowledge regarding the IT sector and preferably the organization you are working on. Penetration tests should be run by an independent outside service provider so that they can be unbiased and non-judgemental

4]. APPLICATION SECURITY in Cybersecurity

In recent years, the emerging cyber-world seems to be dominating a lot more and driving force that is molding up the new forms of almost every business. Websites these days are not only used for publicity and marketing but also used as a tool for catering to the business needs of many companies. These online applications have gained trust among the customers and users regarding the security of certain vital information. Security simply means granting authorized access to be protected data and refusing access to unauthorized access. Always keep in mind that Brute Force Attacks are not only related to web applications but desktop software is also vulnerable to this.

Some Test Methodologies are:


Black box testing is a software testing method in which the design or structure of the item tested without looking at the internal code structure and it is unknown to the tester. The name only depicts that the software program used is not disclosed to the eyes of the tester. The main focus is only on the inputs and output of the software system.White box testing is a software testing method in which the internal design or structure of the item which is being tested is known to the tester. Used for testing applications at the level of an application, it revolves around internal and functional testing. The source code is evaluated for
Testing Methodologies


Infrastructure security is known to be one of the developed disciplines of cybersecurity. For instance, It is the security provided to safeguard infrastructures, principally critical infrastructure, such as rail transport, hospitals, airports, highways, bridges, transport hubs, media, network communications, the electricity grid, dams, oil refineries, power plants, water systems, and seaports.

These services have evolved drastically. From addressing security threats at the network layer, till recently, where the attackers are seen applying innovative methodologies to penetrate into the network of an organization or enterprise to get access to various sensitive information assets. Above all, due to the automation and easy availability of tools and techniques.

The organization is heading for taking security measures for it. Some of the market innovations that were implemented are “Firewall” and “Intrusion Detection and Prevention System”. The infrastructure security discipline has progressed a lot now, as it has diverse capabilities to evaluate various security threats and challenges.
As the central attractions for security threats are shifting towards the application layer, the organization should keep its infrastructure security updated to withstand the constantly evolving threats.


In the context of cybersecurity. Social engineering is the practice of psychologically manipulating people so that they give up confidential information for breaching any security mechanism. The individual can be targeted in various manners. For e.g. Attacker will usually trick users into giving them their password or any relevant bank information by acting as a bank employee. If you give them access to your computer, they might install some malicious software that will give them information about your personal details or even get control of your system. Security revolves around the truth: you should know whom to trust and what to trust. You should know that the person you are communicating or sharing some data with is the legitimate person you are dealing with.

Some of the common attacks social engineering attacks are:

  • Email from a friend: For instance,If the attacker gets access to your email password, he will also get access to your contact list through which he can send messages. In addition, In short, he will also have access to the victim’s social networking handles as many people use the same passwords in various portals.
  • Phishing attempt: The phisher sends you any mail, text message, or IM that appears to come from an approved and legitimate enterprise, banking company, or any institution.
    For instance, the fraud emails you receive claiming that you are a winner of a certain contest and you are being rewarded with a hefty amount of cash, in return, they ask you for your bank details and other personal information.
  • Baiting attempts: These attempts are basically schemes or offers that tempt the public in getting involved and trapped. It can be anything from downloading a new movie or any new song which redirects you to some malicious website eventually infecting your system.


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